Having a sense of purpose may add years to your life, regardless of what the purpose is, research suggests.
Not only does it contribute to healthy aging, but it may also stave off early death, according to a study of 7,000 Americans.
The research, published in Psychological Science, applies across adult life, says a US-Canadian team.
It may be because purposeful people look after their health better and are physically fitter, they believe.
The study tracked the physical and mental health of more than 7,000 US adults aged 20 to 75 years.
Their purpose in life was assessed by the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with three statements:
Some people wander aimlessly through life, but I am not one of them. I live life one day at a time and don’t really think about the future. I sometimes feel as if I’ve done all there is to do in life.
When followed up 14 years later, the researchers found purposeful people had outlived their counterparts, even when controlling for other factors such as negative mood.
Furthermore, the added years did not appear to depend on the person’s age, or whether or not they had retired from work.
In other words, having a purpose in life appears to be good for you across the adult years, the researchers say.
Dr Patrick Hill, of the department of psychology at Carleton University in Canada, said the notion of living a life of purpose — setting large goals that direct your day-to-day activities — seemed to be protective on a number of fronts.
“In this study it is mortality, but other studies have shown people report better health,” he told BBC News.
“There is clearly a benefit from feeling a sense of direction or feeling you have these goals directing your day-to-day life.”
9. What dose the text mainly talk about?
A. The benefits of having goals for life
B. The relations between having goals for life expectancy
C. A study of 7000 Americans
D. Why purposeful people live longer
10. Who will live a shorter life than others?
A. Grace who love sports and plans a fitness club
B. Anna who enjoys cooking and eating delicious food
C. Jim who wants to be a wealthy man within 10 years
D. Emma who wishes to buy a big house with her own money
11. Where is the text most likely come from ?
A. A newspaper B. A report
C. A magazine D. A journal
Large industrialized countries are now in a recession. What are the prospects for economic recovery?
The three most important industrial economies in the world are, at the moment, facing enormous problems. Germany is struggling with the cost of reunification and is in recession. Japan is also experiencing recession and the United States has a large budget deficit.
Forecasters and analysts face questions about the prospects of an economic recovery. Here are some of their findings:
The election of a new president of the United States gave hope to the rest of the world. If the US recovered, the rest of the world would face a more promising future. However, analysts now accept that the US will only recover very slowly.
Consumer and investor confidence is still lacking. Large deficits and declining short-term interest rates mean that there is little scope for economic stimulus.
The Japanese economy, after years of trade and budget surpluses, is in deep recession and the growth rate has slowed down considerably. German economists have lowered their
forecasts for economic growth this year. The lowering of German rates may bring some relief to other members of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). However, Germany’s importance as Europe’s largest export market may decline.
However, in some parts of the world, there are more positive signs, particularly in some Latin American countries and in South-East Asia. Analysts say that, as long as the rate of interest stays above the rate of growth in national income, then the ratio of debt to income will get worse. Falling interest rates help towards overcoming this problem. They believe it may take several years before there is real recovery. However, advances in technology are offering hope for the world economy.
12. The important industrial economies mentioned in the passage are _____.
A. Latin American countries and in South-East Asia
B. German, Japan and China
C. German, Japan and United States
D. Not mentioned
13. Find words or expressions in the above article which have the meaning of “The amount by which something is more than what is needed”?
A. deficit B. surpluses C. decline D. recession
14. According to the passage, which one is NOT true?
A. Consumer and investor still hold confidence in the US economy.
B. There is little scope for provoking the economy.
C. US is predicted to be recovering very slowly.
D. The US recovery would give the rest of the world a more promising future.
15. It could be implied that the rising of the interest rate _____.
A. can help towards overcoming this problem about the ratio of debt to income
B. may lead Germany’s importance as Europe’s largest export market to decline
C. may bring some relief to other members of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism
D. None of above
16. The tone of the passage suggests that the author is _____ about the world economy.
A. doubtful B. indifferent C. positive D. pessimistic